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旋元佑英文自習 - 標點符號用法說明
瀏覽數:681

標點符號用法說明


Colon [ : ]

引導正式的發言:

The witness made this declaration: “I know of no attempt to defraud the public.”


引導一個作說明用的片段或系列(可取代對等連接詞):

John will never become a competent leader: he has no sense of responsibility at all.

Imports rose sharply: steel, cars, and electronic equipment.


Comma [ , ]

用於對等連接詞如 and, but, or 之前,隔開兩個對等子句:

That was the best meal we had ever enjoyed, and we were delighted with the service.

*First he stopped at the bank and then he went to his office.


A, B, and C 的形式呈現一個系列:

The menu offered the usual choices of steak, chops, and chicken.

If you study hard, concentrate, and take your time, you’re sure to pass.


將主要子句前面的從屬子句或引介性的片語隔開:

When he had tired of the mad pace of Taipei, he moved to Sanchi.

In the beginning, she liked the work well enough.

*When he was tired he would lie down for a while.

*When the meeting was over, our heads were swimming.

*More and more, people wait until the deadline to file their taxes.


隔開主要子句前面的獨立片語與分詞構句:

Winter having arrived early, we left for the South.

Lying on the couch, the boy had a dream.


在平行對稱結構中代表省略:

You will take the first cab and I, the second.

Bert always brings his lunch; Susan, hardly ever.


標示出句中元素不正常的調動:

That they would accept the money, none of us seriously doubted.


隔開名詞片語中居於對等地位的形容詞:

She had bright, mischievous, laughing brown eyes.


以括弧性的逗點隔開句中一個插入的片段:

The apples, though freshly picked, were spoiled in shipment.


以括弧性的逗點隔開成對比的元素:

Jesse, not Frank, was the first to arrive.


以括弧性的逗點隔開同位格:

Chen Shuibian, our President, is a very lucky man.


以括弧性的逗點隔開一個非限制用法的關係子句或片語:

My gun, which is now over the mantelpiece, hasn’t been used for years.

Such a device, known as a scanner, senses the data and enters it into the computer.


Dash [ -- ]

表示句意的突然轉折或中斷(可取代對等連接詞):

He is—how shall I put it?—an obnoxious fool.

She said, “I am at a loss to understand—”


引導同位格,尤其用於已經有許多逗點的情況:

The three R’s—reading, writing, and arithmetic—are again being stressed.


引導一個作歸納之用的片語或子句:

Educating citizens, improving the human environment, and planning rural society in the 21st century—these are some of the goals.


Hyphen [ - ]

用於複合字:

We employ state-of-the-art technology.

There’s a well-dressed man waiting outside.

*He is a foreign-car dealer.


Quotation Marks [ “ ” ]

用於強調某個單字本身,或者用來表示「所謂的」:

Words like “never” and “always” should be used sparingly.

You know what he does on his “house calls”?


Semicolon [ ; ]

取代對等連接詞(and, but, or 等)來連接對等子句:

Some readers will recognize the writers being parodied; however, others will need to consult the notes.


在較長、較複雜、含有較多逗點的句子中,用於隔開對等子句:

Unconsciously, native English-speakers develop a way of associating certain words such as helium, heliotrope, heliocentric, and heliograph; but a systematic study of the internal structure of those words would show that the common element is helio-, a combining form meaning “the sun,” “bright,” “radiant.”


用於呈現 a, A; b, B; and c, C 之類的系列:

The tour included Miami, Florida; San Juan, Puerto Rico; and Kingston, Jamaica.


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