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陳蕙雅思教材 - 雅思閱讀精選 (The Definition of"Price")

The Definition of"Price"

Prices determine howresources are to be used. They are also the means by

which products andservices  that are in           limited supply are rationed among

buyers. The price systemof the United States is a complex network composed

of       the prices of all the products bought and sold in  the economy  as

well  as those  of  a myriad  of  services, including    labor,

professional,transportation, and public-utility services. The

interrelationships of allthese prices make          up the

"system" ofprices. The price of any particular product or service is

linked to a broad,complicated system of prices in which everything seems

to depend more or lessupon everything else.    If one were toask a group  

of randomly selected  individuals to define "price", many would reply that

price is an     amount of money paid by the buyer to theseller of a product or

service or,     in other words,  that  price  is  the   money value  of  a  

product  or service  as  agreed upon  in  a market transaction. This

definition is, of course,valid as far as it goes. For a complete

understanding of a pricein any  particular transaction, much  more than

the amount    of money involved must be known. Both the buyer and the seller

should be familiar withnot only the money amount,    but with theamount and

quality of the product orservice to be exchanged, the time and place at

which the exchange willtake place and payment will be made, the form of

money to be used, thecredit terms and discounts that apply   tothe

transaction, guaranteeson the product or service, delivery terms, return

privileges, and otherfactors. In    other words, both buyer andseller should

be fully aware of  all the factors  that comprise the total "package"          being

exchanged for  the asked-for amount of money in order thatthey may

evaluate a given price.

"價格"的定義  價格決定資源的使用方式。 價格也是有限的產品與服務在買方中的配給 手段。  

美國的價格系統是複雜的網狀系統,包括經濟生活中一切產品買賣的價格,也包括 名目繁多的各種服務,諸如勞動力、專職人員、交通運輸、公共事業等服務的價格。  

所有 這些價格的內在聯繫構成了價格系統。  任何一種個別產品或服務的價格都與這個龐大而複


問他們如何定義"價格",許多人會回答價格就是根據賣方提供的產品或服務,買方向其付出 的錢數。

換句話說,價格就是市場交易中大家認同的產品或服務的貨幣量。 該定義就其本 身來說自有其道理。  

但要獲得對價格在任何一樁交易中的完整認識,就必須考慮到大量" 非貨幣"因素的影響。 買賣雙方不但要清楚交易中的錢數,而且要非常熟悉交易物的品質和

數量,交易的時間、地點,採用哪種形式付款,有怎樣的緩付和優惠,對交易物的品質保證、 交貨條款、退賠權利等等。  

也就是說,為了能估算索價,買賣雙方必須通曉構成交易物價 格的通盤細節。